To appear

Carling Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault (to appear). A Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Complete Edition. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (610p.) (paper), Leiden: Brill (electronic). ISBN ?.

In press

Carling, Gerd, Chundra Cathcart, and Erich Round (in press). Reconstructing the origins of language families and variation. In: The Oxford Handbook of Human Symbolic Variation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


2021. Carling, Gerd* and Chundra Cathcart. Reconstructing the evolution of Indo-European grammar. Language 97(3). DOI  10.1353/lan.0.0253

2021. Carling, Gerd* and Chundra Cathcart. Evolutionary dynamics of Indo-European alignment patterns. Diachronica, July 23.

2021. Van Epps, Briana, Gerd Carling*, and Yair Sapir (2021), 'Gender assignment in six North Scandinavian languages: Patterns of variation and change', Journal of Germanic Linguistics, 33 (3), 264-315.

2021. Carling, Gerd. Caucasian Typology and Indo-European reconstruction. In: Christopher Berglund, Katrine Gotfredsen, Jean Hudson & Bo Peterson (eds.) Language and Society in the Caucasus. Understanding the Past, Navigating the Present. Festschrift for Karina Vamling. Lund: Universus Academic Press, 47-58.

2021. Dellert, JohannesNiklas Erben JohanssonJohan Frid and Gerd Carling*. Preferred sound groups of vocal iconicity reflect evolutionary mechanisms of sound stability and first language acquisition: evidence from Eurasia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 326(1874).

Carling, Gerd (2021). A dangerous story: the linguistic behaviour of the category sharp cutting implements. In: Romain Garnier (ed.) Loanwords and Substrata. Proceedings of the Colloquium held in Limoges (5th - 7th June, 2018), Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, 121-149.


Erben Johansson, Niklas, Andrey Anikin, Gerd Carling and Arthur Holmer (2020). The typology of sound symbolism: Defining macro-concepts via their semantic and phonetic features. Linguistic Typology, March 6, 2020 DOI:


Carling, Gerd (Ed.) (2019). Mouton Atlas of Languages and Cultures. Vol. 1 Europe, Caucasus, West and South Asia. Berlin – New York: De Gruyter (800p.). ISBN 9783110373073.

Carling, Gerd, Sandra Cronhamn, Robert Farren, Elnur Aliyev & Johan Frid (2019). The causality of borrowing: Lexical loans in Eurasian languages. PLOS ONE 14(10)

Van Epps, Briana & Gerd Carling (2019). Patterns of gender assignment in the Jamtlandic variety of Scandinavian (2019). Nordic Journal of Linguistics 43.1 (Cambridge University Press). DOI:

Carling, Gerd, Sandra Cronhamn, Rob Farren, Niklas Johansson, Joost van de Weijer (2019). The Cultural Lexicon of Indo-European in Europe: Quantifying Stability and Change. In:  Guus Kroonen, James P. Mallory & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Talking Neolithic: Proceedings of the workshop on Indo-European origins held at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, December 2-3, 2013. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph No.65, 39-68.


Carling, Gerd, Chundra Cathcart, Filip Larsson, Rob Verhoeven, Niklas Johansson, Arthur Holmer, Erich Round (2018). Diachronic Atlas of Comparative Linguistics (DiACL) – A Database for Ancient Language Typology. PLOS ONE 13(10), DOI

Cathcart, Chundra, Gerd Carling, Filip Larsson, Niklas Johansson, and Erich Round (2018). Areal pressure in grammatical evolution: an Indo-European case study. Diachronica (John Benjamins) 35(1), 1-34. DOI

Carling, Gerd (2018). Tocharian Syntax. In: Jared Klein, Brian Joseph & Mathias Fritz (eds.) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An International Handbook of Language Comparison and the Reconstruction of Indo-European. HSK 41. Berlin – New York: De Gruyter, 1352-1364.


Van Epps, Briana and Gerd Carling (2017). From three genders to two: the sociolinguistics of gender shift in the Jämtlandic dialect of Sweden. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia (Taylor & Francis), 49:1, 53-84. DOI

Carling, Gerd, Sandra Cronhamn, Elis Jarl Skute, and Wary Kamaiurá (2017). Deixis in narrative. A study of Kamiurá, a Tupí-Guaraní language of Upper Xingú, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, 9(1), s. 13-48. DOI

Carling, Gerd (2017). Etymology and iconicity in onomatopoeia and sound symbolism. A Germanic case study (2017). In Birgit Anette Olsen (ed.): Etymology and the European Lexicon, Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert, 93-103.


Carling, Gerd, Mikael Demetri, Angelina Dimiter-Taikon, Lenny Lindell, Allan Schwartz (2016). Romer. 500 år i Sverige. Språk, kultur och identitet. [Roma. 500 Years in Sweden. Language, Culture, and Identity]. Linköping: Linköping University Press (107p.). ISBN 978-91-7685-802-8.

Holmer, Arthur. (2016). Review of Vyvyan Evans: The language myth: why language is not an instinct. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 37: 869–871.

Carling, Gerd (2016). Language: the role of culture and environment in proto-vocabularies. In Sonesson, Göran (ed.): Human Lifeworlds: The Cognitive Semiotics of Cultural Evolution. Peter Lang, 83-121.


Niklas Johansson & Gerd Carling (2015). The De-Iconization and Rebuilding of Iconicity in Spatial Deixis. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia (Taylor & Francis) 47.1, 4-32. DOI:


Carling, Gerd, Lenny Lindell and Gilbert Ambrazaitis (2014). Scandoromani. Remnants of a Mixed Language. Leiden – Boston: Brill (Series Language, Cognition, and Culture) (295p.). ISBN 978-9004266445.

Carling, Gerd & Niklas Johansson (2014). Motivated language change: processes involved in the growth and conventionalization of onomatopoeia and sound symbolism. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia (Taylor & Francis) 46.2, 199-217. DOI:

Svantesson, Jan-Olof & Arthur Holmer (2014). Kammu. In M. Jenny & P. Sidwell (eds.). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages, 955-1002. Leiden: Brill Publishers.

Holmer, Arthur & Loren Billings. (2014). Clitic pronouns in Seediq. In I.W. Arka and N.L.K. Mas Indrawati (eds.). Argument realisations and related constructions in Austronesian languages: papers from 12-ICAL 2, 111-139. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics.


Carling, Gerd, Love Eriksen, Arthur Holmer & Joost van de Weijer (2013). Implementing the matrix model: the method of contrasting linguistic and archaeological data by means of GIS and cluster analysis of the Arawakan language family. In: Anju Saxena & Lars Borin (eds.) Comparing Approaches to Measuring Linguistic Differences. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 29-56.

Holmer, Arthur. (2013). Parallel grammars : on being separated by a common language. In A. Flyman Mattsson & C. Norrby (eds.). Language Acquisition and Use in Multilingual Contexts, 50-59. Lund: Travaux de l'institut de linguistique de Lund.

Holmer, Arthur. (2013). Greetings Earthlings! On Possible Features of Exolanguage. In D. Dunér (Ed.) The History and Philosophy of Astrobiology: Perspectives on Extraterrestrial Life and the Human Mind (pp. 157-184). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Holmer, Arthur. (2013). Lexical clues on music and speech: the view from Seediq muuyas. In P. Berry, P. (Ed.) If I were a drongo bird (pp. 37-40). Musikhögskolan i Malmö.


Holmer, Arthur. (2012). Evidence from Formosan for a unified theory of adverb ordering. Lingua 102.8, 902–921.

Carling, Gerd (2012). Development of form and function in a case system with layers: Tocharian and Romani compared. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies (Museum Tusculanum Press) 13, 57-76.

Burenhult, Niclas, Arthur Holmer, Anastasia Karlsson, Håkan Lundström & Jan-Olof Svantesson. (2012). Humanities of the lesser-known: an overview. Language Documentation and Description, 10, 5-11.

Karlsson, Anastasia & Arthur Holmer (2012). Functions of word order and intonation in information structuring in Puyuma. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Speech Prosody, Vols I and II, 123-126. Tongji Univ Press.

Holmer, Arthur. & Anastasia Karlsson (2012). Information Structure and Prosody in Puyuma NP-internal Word Order. In Proceedings of The 19th Annual Meeting of the Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan, June 26-30, 39-41.

Holmer, Arthur. (2012). Review of Matthews & Yip. Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar, 2nd Edition. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 40, 241-252. University of California.


Holmer, Arthur. (2011). Formosanska språk, relativisering och språktypologi. Årsbok. Vetenskapssocieteten i Lund, 2011, 37-58. Vetenskapssocieteten i Lund.

Karlsson, Anastasia & Arthur Holmer (2011). Interaction between word order, information structure and intonation in Puyuma. In M. Endo (ed.) Papers in Austroasiatic and Austronesian Linguistics, 28-38.


Holmer, Arthur (2010). ‘Seediq adverbial verbs - a review of the evidence’. R. Mercado, E. Potsdam & L. Travis (eds.). Austronesian and Theoretical Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia:  John Benjamins. 163–182.

Carling, Gerd et al (2009). A Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Vol. 1 A-J. By Gerd Carling in Collaboration with Georges-Jean Pinault and Werner Winter. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (210p). ISBN 978-3-447-05814-8 (Vol 1).

Lenny Lindell, Kenth Thorbjörnsson-Djerf† & Gerd Carling (2008). Ordbok over svensk romani. Resandefolkets språk och sånger. Bearbetad och med inledning/ grammatik av Gerd Carling. Stockholm: Podium/ Språkrådet. ISBN 9789189196438.

Carling, Gerd (ed.) (2006) GIŠ.HURgul-za-at-ta-ra. A Festschrift for Folke Josephson on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. Gothenburg: Meijerbergs Arkiv för Svensk Ordforskning 32 (306p.). ISBN 91-974747-2-X.

Carling, Gerd. Romani i svenskan. Storstadsslang och standardspråk [Romani in the Swedish language] (2005). Stockholm: Carlssons. ISBN 917203663X.

Die Funktionen der Lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen (2000). Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016827-8.

Carling, Gerd (2008). Phonological erosion and semantic generalization: Notes on the grammaticalization of the Tocharian case paradigm. Lund University, Department of Linguistics: Working Papers 53. Lund: Dept. of Linguistics, 5-14.

Carling, Gerd (2008). Reconsidering the system: verbal categorization and the coding of valency in Tocharian. In: Jens Elmegård Rasmussen & Thomas Olander (eds.) Internal Reconstruction in Indo-European. Methods, results and problems. Section Papers from the XVIth International Conference for Historical Linguistics, University of Copenhagen 11th-15th August, 2003. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 49-63.

Henningsson, Lars-Åke & Arthur Holmer (2008). ‘The distribution of quantifiers in Seediq’. Working Papers 52:23–41. Lund University: Dept of Linguistics.

Carling, Gerd (2007). The vocabulary of Tocharian medical manuscripts. In: Vivienne Lo – Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (ed.) Asian Medicine. Tradition and Modernity. Vol. 3 – No 2 2007. Leiden: Brill, 323-333.

Carling, Gerd (2006). Notes on the syntactic functions of the Tocharian clitic pronouns. In: Gerd Carling (ed.) GIŠ.HURgul-za-at-ta-ra. A Festschrift for Folke Josephson on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. Göteborg: Meijerbergs Arkiv för Svensk Ordforskning 32, 39-49.

Holmer, Arthur. 2006. ‘Polypersonal agreement, convergent evolution and the Basque-Caucasian hypothesis’. In B. Fernández & I. Laka (eds). Andolin gogoan. Essays in honour of Professor Eguzkitza. Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Publishing Service. 477–495

Holmer, Arthur. 2006. ‘The place of Swedish in word order typology’. In Å. Viberg (ed.). The typological Profile of Swedish. Special issue of Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung.

Holmer, Arthur. 2006. ‘Seediq - adverbial heads in a Formosan language’. In H.-M. Gärtner, P. Law & J. Sabel (eds). Clause structure and adjuncts in Austronesian languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 83–123

Holmer, Arthur. 2005. ’Seediq – antisymmetry and final particles in a Formosan VOS language’. A. Carnie, H. Harley & S. A. Dooley (Eds). Verb First: Papers on the Syntax of Verb Initial Languages. 175–201. John Benjamins.

Carling, Gerd (2005). The coding of ditransitivity in Tocharian. Lund University, Department of Linguistics: Working Papers 51. Lund: Dept. of Linguistics, 31-46.

Holmer, Arthur (2005). ‘Verb serialization in Kammu.’ Working Papers 51: 65–84. Lund University: Dept of Linguistics

Carling, Gerd (2005). Proto-Tocharian, Common Tocharian, and Tocharian – on the value of linguistic connections in a reconstructed language. In: Jones-Bley, Karlene, Huld, Martin E., Volpe, Angela Vella,  Dexter, Miriam Robbins Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference. Journal of Indo-European Studies. Monograph Series (Institute for the Study of Man) 50, 47-70.

Databases, corpora

Carling, Gerd (ed.) (to appear). CeDICT. Comprehensive e-Dictionary of Tocharian A. Lund University. Complete dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. (Online database, 3,700 lexical entries, 240,000 words.

Carling, Gerd (ed.) (2017). DiACL - Diachronic Atlas of Comparative Linguistics Online. Lund University. Database with lexical and typological data from 500 languages of 17 families., (Online relational database (open access), 208,625 controlled data points.

Carling, Gerd (ed.) (2013). Tocharian A corpus (transcriptions, translations, references). Published via database CeTOM, Vienna University (ed. Melanie Malzahn). (Online database (open access), around 1000 edited manuscripts (≈350,000 words including text, translation, and references).

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